2. The verb group

2.1. special verbs: "to be" and "to have"

2.1.1. to be

Present tense

I  am (I'm)
You are  (you're)
He is (he's)
She  is (she's)
It  is (it's)
We are (we're)
You  are (you're)
They are (they're)

Am  I?
Are  you?
Is  he?
Is  she?
Is  it?
Are  we?
Are you?
Are  they?

I  am not (I’m not)
You are  not (you aren’t)
He is  not (he isn't)
She  is not  (she isn't)
It  is not (it isn't)
We are not (we aren't)
You are not (you aren't)
They are not (they aren't)

I'm sixteen
'Are you English?'  'Yes, I am'
Her name's Anne
Is Susan an engineer?   Yes, she is.
Are John and his father doctors?
'You're Canadian, aren't you?'   'Yes, that's right'

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Past tense

I was
You were
he / it / she was
we were
you were
they were

was      I?
were    you?
was      she/he/it?
were    we?
were    you?
were    they?

I   was not    (wasn't)
you  were not  (weren't)
he/she/it  was not  (wasn't)
we   were not  (weren't)
you    were not   (weren't)
they  were not   (weren't)

'When you were a small child, were you happy?'
'Yes, I was'.    'No, I wasn't.'   'I was quite happy'
'Were your parents poor?'
'We weren't poor, but we weren't rich.'
'Life wasn't hard, but white people were not always kind to me.'

Note: There is / there are

present simple

there is (there's)
there are ( -- )

is there?
are there?

there is not (isn't)
there are not (aren't)

past simple

there was
there were

was there?
were here?

there was not (wasn't)
there were not (weren't)

There's a big table in my kitchen
Is there any milk in the fridge?
Yes, there is. / No, there isn't.
Are there any oranges?
Yes, there are./ No, there aren't. / Yes, there's one.
There was some coffee on the table.
There wasn't any ice in her glass.
There are two chairs in the hall.
There aren't enough eggs.
There weren't enough potatoes.

2.1.2. to have

Present simple

I         have
You     have
He       has
She      has
It         has
We     have
You     have
They   have

do I have?
do you have?
does he have?
does she have?
does it have?
do we have?
do you have?
do they have?

I do not  (don't) have
you do not  (don't) have
he does not (doesn't) have
she does not (doesn’t) have
it does not (doesn’t) have
we do not  (don't) have
you  do not  (don't) have
they do not  (don't) have

Past simple

I had
You had
He had
She  had
It had
We had
You had
They had

Did I have?
Did you have?
Did he have?
Did she have?
Did it have?
Did we have?
Did you have?
Did they have?

I did not (didn't) have
You  did not (didn't) have
He did not (didn't) have
She did not (didn’t) have
It did not (didn’t) have
We did not (didn't) have
You did not (didn't) have
They did not (didn't) have

When she was young, she had long fair hair.
We didn't have  a car when I was a child.
We had a wonderful holiday last summer.
What time did you have breakfast this morning?

The tables above are only correct if the verb "to have" has the meaning "possess" or "take". If "have" is an auxiliary, it has the same negative and interrogative form as "have got", in the table below.

‘have got’ is used to talk about possession and relationships.

I have got (I’ve got)
You  have got (You’ve got)
He has got (He's got)
She has got (She’s got)
It  has got (It’s got)
We have got (We’ve got)
You have got (You’ve got)
They have got (They’ve got)

Have I  got?
Have you  got?
Has he got?
Has she got?
Has he got?
Have we got?
Have you got?
Have they got?

I have not(haven't) got
You have not (haven't) got
He  has not (hasn't) got
She  has not (hasn’t) got
It has not (hasn’t) got
We have not (haven't) got
You have not (haven't) got
They have not (haven't) got

You've got beautiful eyes.
'Have you got any sisters or brothers?'
'Yes, I have. I've got two sisters.'      'No, I haven't.'
'Has your mother  got  any sisters?' 'Yes, she has. She's got two.'   No, she hasn't.'
We've got a new car.'
I haven't got any money.

the past tense of ‘have got’ is not so often used.

2.1.3. to have or to be?

When Lucy is hungry, she has bread and cheese.
When I'm thirsty, I have a glass of orange juice.
When I'm dirty, I have a bath.
What colour is your car?
What size are your shoes?

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2.2. The present tenses

2.2.1. present simple

I live
You live
He / she / it lives
We live
You live
They live
Do I live?
Do you live?
Does he / she / it live?
Do we live?
Do you live?
Do they live?
I do not (don’t) live
You do not (don’t) live
He / she / it does not(doesn’t) live
We do not (don’t) live
You do not (don’t) live
They do not (don’t) live

'I live in Curzon Street.' 'Oh? I do, too.' / ‘So do I’
He loves her.
'Do you like orange juice?' 'Yes, I do.'
'What time does Karen get up? ' 'Half past seven'
'Does she go to work by car?' 'Yes, she does.' / 'No, she doesn't.'
'Do Sam and Virginia live near you?' 'No, they don't'

Spelling of he / she / it forms

1. Most verbs +s: get gets, play plays, live lives

2. with verbs ending in consonant + '-y', the ending becomes 'ies': try tries, marry marries

3. If the verb ends in -ch, -sh, or -s, you add "es": watch watches, wash washes, pass passes

4. Irregular: have has, do does, go goes

2.2. 2. Present continuous

I am (I'm) eating
You are (you're) eating
He is (he's) eating
She is (she’s) eating
It is (it’s) eating
We are (we're) eating
You are (you're) eating
They are (they're) eating
Am I eating?
Are you eating?
Is he eating?
Is she eating?
Is it eating?
Are we eating?
Are you eating?
Are they eating?
I am not (I’m not) eating
you are not (you aren't) eating
he is not (isn't) eating
She is not (isn’t) eating
It is not (isn’t) eating
we are not (we aren't) eating
you are not (you aren't) eating
they are not (aren't) eating

I 'm looking for a blue sweater.
Some people are dancing.
What is the woman in the red dress doing?
'Are George and Tom wearing their blue jackets?'
'Yes, they are' / 'No, they aren't.'
I 'm not working today.'

Note: some verbs are not usually used in the progressive form: believe, understand, know, want, need, prefer, like, love, hate, belong, see, hear, realise, suppose, mean, remember, forget, seem, have (when the meaning is ‘possess’) and think (when the meaning is ‘believe’)
Do you believe in ghosts?
He doesn’t understand
What do you think Tom will do?
(= what do you believe he will do?)
BUT What are you thinking about?
I have a car (=I possess a car)
BUT: I can’t answer the phone for the moment, I’m having a bath.

Spelling of -ing forms

1. Most verbs: + ing. sing singing, eat eating

2. Verbs ending in -e: make making, write writing

3. Short verbs ending in 'consonant + vowel + consonant': you must double the last consonant.
stop stopping, sit sitting, run running

4. Verbs ending in -ie: lie lying, die dying

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2.3. present simple or present continuous?

a). We use the simple present to talk about:
- things that are true all the time: The earth goes round the sun
Water boils at 100° Celsius.
- things that happen repeatedly (often, sometimes, usually...): I usually study from five to seven o'clock

b). we use the present continuous to talk about:
- things that are happening now, these days, ...: The water is boiling: I'll make coffee.
Look, Helen 's wearing a lovely red dress.
- plans for the future: We 're going to Ann and Peter's for Christmas.
What are you doing tomorrow?

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2.4. simple past of regular verbs:

I worked
You worked
He worked
She worked
It worked
We worked
You worked
They worked
Did I work?
Did you work?
Did he work?
Did she work?
Did it work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?
I did not (didn’t) work
You did not (didn’t) work
He did not (didn’t) work
She did not (didn’t) work
It did not(didn’t) work
We did not (didn’t) work
You did not (didn’t) work
They did not (didn’t) work

When Angela was younger, she hated school.
‘Did your family have a television when you were a child?’ ‘No, we didn’t.’
‘Did you like school when you were a child?’ ‘Yes, I did.’
I didn’t like cheese when I was a child, but I do now.

2.4.2. Spelling of regular past tenses:

- Most regular verbs: + ed.
work worked, start started, play played

- Verbs ending in - e: + d.
hate hated, love loved

- one syllable verbs ending in cons.+ vowel + cons.: we double the last consonant
stop stopped, rob robbed

- more than one syllable verb: if the stress falls on the last syllable, we double the last consonant:
permit permitted, prefer preferred

- Verbs ending in consonant + y :- ied
study studied, carry carried, hurry hurried

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2.5. simple past of irregular verbs:

Download the list of irregular verbs:

Alternatively, you can exercise these irregular verbs differently thanks to this presentation by Laurence Bernard (ac-martinique)

2.6. The Present Perfect Simple:

‘have’ + past participle
I have (I've) worked
You have (you've) worked
He has (he's) worked
She has (she’s) worked
It has (it’s) worked
We have (we've) worked
You have (you've) worked
They have (they've) worked
Have I worked?
Have you worked?
Has he worked?
Has she worked?
Has it worked?
Have we worked?
Have you worked?
Have they worked?
I have not (haven't) worked
You have not (haven't) worked
He has not (hasn't) worked
She has not (hasn't) worked
It has not (hasn't) worked
We have not (haven't) worked
You have not (haven't) worked
They have not (haven't) worked

We use the Present Perfect...:
1°. to express experience: Have you ever been to Russia?
2°. to express unfinished past I've lived here for three years (= I still live here)
3°. to express present results: I've lost my wallet. I've changed my job three times this year

'Have you ever been to Africa?' 'Yes, I've visited Africa twice'. (= he isn't in Africa anymore)
'Where is Tom?' 'He's on holiday. He has gone to Canada' (= he is still in Canada)
How long have you lived in this town?
I haven't finished this work yet.
'Do you want something to eat?' 'No, thanks. I've already eaten.'
'Could I speak to Jane, please?' 'I'm afraid she has just left.'
It's the first time he has driven a car. He has never driven a car before.

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2.7. The present perfect or the past simple?

Past Simple

Present Perfect

a) We use the Past Simple to talk about something that happened at a particular time in the past:
I met John at 4 o'clock
'When did Jane go to India?' 'Last June'
Martin bought a new car last week

We use the Present Perfect to talk about the past, but not about when things happened.
I've met John's girlfriend. She's nice.
'Have you ever been to India?
I have never bought a new car

b) We use the Past Simple for situations or actions during a period of time that ended in the past (for instance with ago, yesterday, last week, then, when...)
I worked there for two years. I left last year.
We lived in that house for a long time, then we moved to this one.
Our company opened two new shops last summer.
Did you go to Africa last summer?
I changed my job last week.

We use the Present Perfect for situations or actions during a period of time from the past to now (for instance with ever, never, before, since, ...)
He has worked here for two years. (he still works here)
We've lived in this flat since we got married (We still live there)
We opened two shops last summer. Since then, we've opened two more.
Have you ever been to Africa?
I've changed my job twice this year
. (the year isn't finished yet)

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2.8. The past continuous:

I was trying
You were trying
He was trying
She was trying
It was trying
We were trying
You were trying
They were trying
Was I trying?
Were you trying?
Was he trying?
Was she trying?
Was it trying?
Were we trying?
Were you trying?
Were they trying?
I was not (wasn't) trying
You were not (weren't) trying
He was not (wasn't) trying
She was not (wasn’t) trying
It was not (wasn’t) trying
We were not (weren't) trying
You were not (weren’t) trying
They were not (weren’t) trying

I was having a bath when the phone rang.
‘What were you doing yesterday at eleven o’clock?’   ‘I suppose I was sleeping !’

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2.9. Past simple or past continuous?

We use the Past Progressive for 'background' events - for an action or situation that was in progress at a particular time, or at the moment when something happened. We use the Simple Past for a shorter event which came in the middle of the 'background' event, or which interrupted it.

Just when I was trying to finish some work, Janet turned up.
The TV broke down while we were watching the news.
'What were you doing yesterday at 7 o'clock?' - 'I was driving home from work.'
I met her while we were working for the same company.
When I met her, we were working for the same company.

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2.10. The present perfect continuous:

I have (I've) been working
You have (you've) been working
He has (he's) been working
She has (she’s) been working
It has (it’s) been working
We have (we’ve) been working
You have (you’ve) been working
They have (they’ve) been working
Have I been working?
Have you been working?
Has he been working?
Has she been working?
Has it been working?
Have we been working?
Have you been working?
Have they been working?
I have not (haven't) been working
you have not (haven't) been working
he has not (hasn't) been working
she has not (hasn’t) been working
it has not (hasn’t) been working
we have not (haven’t) been working
you have not (haven’t) been working
they have not (haven’t) been working

1. Sometimes there is little or no difference in meaning between the Present Perfect Simple and the Present Perfect Continuous:
How long have you worked here?
How long have you been working here?

2. Verbs that have the idea of a long time (e.g. wait, work, learn, travel, play...) can be found in the Present Perfect Continuous:
I've been waiting for you for 3 hours !
Verbs that don't have the idea of a long time (e.g. find, buy, start, die, lose, stop, break...) are usually found in the Present Perfect Simple:
I've bought a new dress
My radio has broken

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2.11. The past perfect:

I had (I'd) seen
You had (you'd) seen
He had (He’d) seen
Had I seen?
Had you seen?
Has he seen?
I had not (hadn't) seen
You had not (hadn't) seen
He had not (hadn’t) seen

We use the Past Perfect for something that happened before something else in the past. We use the Past Perfect for the thing that happened first, and the Simple Past for the thing that happened later.
Jane had gone home when I phoned her at the office. (= First, Jane went home. Later, I phoned her)
When we had finished our homework, we went outside and played. (= First, we finished our homework. Later, we went outside and we played)

Note also this example with 'by the time':
By the time he was thirty-five, he had earned a million pounds.

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The narrative tenses

Exercices: choisissez entre le past simple, past continuous et past perfect.

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2.12. The future

2.12.1. Will

I/you/he/we... will (‘ll) go Will I go?
Will you go?
Will he go?
I will not (won’t) go.
he will not (won’t) go
we will not (won’t) go

- ‘Will’ is used to express future time: I’ll be thirty in a few days

- It can also express a prediction: It’ll be cold and wet tomorrow

- As a modal auxiliary, it expresses a quick decision (taken at the moment of speaking), an intention, or willingness (offer and request):
I’ll have some steak, please. (decision)
She’ll come to see you tonight. (intention)
Will you help me? (request)
I’ll drive you into town. (offer)
I think Manchester will beat Liverpool 2-0
If you don’t eat, you’ll die.
Are you sure you’ll be all right?

- There will be + noun: There will be snow.
There will be a meeting at eight o’clock this evening.

- It will be + adjective: It will be cold
It won’t be very interesting.

2.12.2. Be going + infinitive

‘Be going to’ is used ...:
- to express an intention that has already been planned or decided before the moment of speaking:
We’re saving up because we’re going to buy a house.
- to predict a future event for which there is some evidence now.
I think I’m going to faint.
It looks as though it is going to rain.

2.12.3. Present Continuous

The Present Continuous is used to talk about a future event which is already arranged.:
Are you doing anything this evening?
I’m working on Thursday.
We’re leaving on Monday.
He’s meeting Jane at the theatre tomorrow night.

2.12.4. The differences:

we use both the present progressive and going to to talk about plans, intentions. (We don’t use will for plans!). We use the present progressive especially when times and places are mentioned:
I’m going to travel round the world
I’m travelling to France next week.

We use both going to and will to predict (to say what will happen in the future) We prefer going to when it is almost certain, when it is very clear that it is going to happen:
Look! It’s going to rain !
Perhaps it will snow tomorrow.
She’s going to have a baby.
Do you think the baby will have blue eyes?

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2.12.5. Future Progressive / Continuous:

I will (I’ll) be working
you will (you’ll) be working
will I be working...?
will you be working...?
I will not (won’t) be working
you will (won’t) be working

The future continuous is used for the situation at a particular future moment:
At eight o’clock tomorrow morning, I’ll be brushing my teeth.
What will you be doing this time tomorrow?

2.12.6. Future Perfect:

I will (I’ll) have worked
you will (you’ll) have worked...
Will I have worked?
Will you have worked?
I will not (won’t) have worked
you will not (won’t) have worked

The future perfect is used to say what will be finished or completed at a particular future time:
In a couple of years, she will have got married and settled down.
By next summer I expect I’ll have passed all my exams.
Ten years from now, will you have forgotten me?

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2.13. Conditionals

2.13.1. Type 0:

if + présent simple, présent simple

On utilise le "zero conditional" pour exprimer quelque chose qui est toujours vrai.

If you heat ice, it turns into water.
If I make a promise, I always keep it.

2.13.2. Type 1:

if + présent simple/continu/present perfect, will + infinitif

On utilise le "first conditional" pour parler d'événements qui sont encore possibles dans le futur.

If I work hard, I will pas my exams.
If she has enough money, she'll buy a new car.
If we don't hurry up, we'll be late.
If you're late, I won't wait for you.

2.13.3. Type 2:

if + passé simple, would + infinitif

Le "second conditional" est utilisé pour exprimer une hypothèse. Parfois, "would" peut être remplacé par "could".

If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.
If she knew the answer, sh'd tell us.

If I didn't have so many debts, I wouldn't have to work so hard.

Remarque: on utilise parfois "were" au lieu de "was" dans la condition.
If I were rich, I'd give my money to you.

2.13.4. Type 3:

if + plus-que-parfait, conditionnel passé (would + have + participe passé)

Le "third conditional" est utilisé pour exprimer l'hypothèse rejetée.

If you hadn't told me, I would never have known.
If I had known how bad it was, I wouldn't have come.

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2.14. L'impératif

L'impératif sert à donner un ordre. Il est formé à partir de la base verbale, c'est-à-dire l'infinitif du verbe sans 'to' pour la deuxième personne du singulier et du pluriel. A la première personne du pluriel on précède l'impératif de 'let's' :

Finish your homework first, then you can play.
Let's eat.

Pour la forme négative, on utilise 'don't' (ou : 'do not') à la deuxième personne du singulier et du pluriel; à la première personne du pluriel on le précède de 'let's not' (ou : 'let us not') :

Let's not forget who helped us.
Don't leave me!

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2.15. Les auxiliaires de mode

2.15.1. Caractéristiques

1) Les auxiliaires de mode ne prennent pas de -s à la troisième personne du singulier.
She can swim.

2) Ils ne sont jamais précédés de 'do' pour faire une question ou une phrase négative.
Can you speak French?
You mustn't smoke here.

3) Ils sont suivis d'un infinitif sans 'to'.
I must go now.
Exception: ought to

4) Ils ne possèdent pas de forme infinitive. Dès lors, on doit parfois utiliser des formes de remplacement: 'be able to' pour la capacité, 'be allowed to' pour la permission, 'have to' pour l'obligation.

2.15.2. can

- exprime la permission ou l'interdiction:
You can park your car in front of my garage.
Can I have an ice-cream?
You can't watch TV before dinner.

- la possibilité ou l'impossibilité:
It can rain in the desert.
Children can be very friendly.

- La capacité:
He can sing but he can't dance.

- La demande polie:
Can you pass me the salt please?

2.15.3. could

- pour exprimer une capacité dans le passé (= forme passée de 'can'):
Mozart could play the piano when he was four.

- pour demander la permission poliment:
Could I speak to you for a moment?

- pour exprimer une possibilité peu probable:
The Belgian Red Devils could well win the next football World Cup.

- pour parler d'une possible action dans le futur:
We could go to the cinema tonight.

2.15.4. will

- pour exprimer un fait dans le futur:
The Queen will open a new hospital on Thursday.

- pour exprimer une intention ou une décision spontanée, prise sur le moment même:
I'll have a steak please.

- pour exprimer une prédiction:
The weather will be dry and sunny tomorrow.

- pour faire une promesse:
I forgot my homework at home, but I'll bring it tomorrow.

- pour exprimer une demande polie:
Will you help me with my homework?

Remarque: la forme négative de will est 'will not' (won't)

2.15.5. Shall

Shall exprime la suggestion, l'offre:
Shall we go for a drink?
Shall I get you something to drink?

2.15.6. would

- pour exprimer l'hypothèse:
If I had enough money I would buy a horse.

- comme la forme du passé de 'will'
She said she would help me.

- Pour exprimer une offre:
Would you like a cup of tea?

- pour exprimer un souhait:
I wish it would stop raining.

- Pour exprimer une habitude dans le passé:
Whenever Arthur was angry, he would just walk out of the room.

- Pour exprimer une demande très polie:
Would you lease open the window?

2.15.7. may et might

- pour exprimer une possibilité dans le présent ou le futur (might est moins probable que may)
Where is Jack? - He may be in his office.
The weather forecast is not very good. It might rain in the afternoon.

- pour demander ou donner la permission (très poli):
May I use your phone?
You may sit down.

32.15.8. must

- Must est utilisé pour exprimer une obligation, pour dire que quelque chose est nécessaire (par exemple dans un règlement):
All visitors must go to the reception when they arrive.

- pour donner un ordre:
You must finish this work today.

- pour recommander fortement:
You must read this book, it's fantastic!

- Pour exprimer une déduction logique:
You have travelled all day, you must be very tired.

2.15.9. mustn't, needn't et don't have to.

'Must not' exprime l'interdiction, tandis que 'don't have to' et 'needn't' sont utilisés pour exprimer l'absence d'obligation ou de nécessité.
The baby is asleep. You mustn't shout.
You needn't to shout: I'm not deaf!

You don't have to copy the whole page, only the first paragraph will be necessary.

2.15.10. Should

- pour donner un conseil:
You should eat more fruit.

- pour demander ou donner une opinion:
I think the government should do something for the homeless.

- pour exprimer une probabilité:
Do you think you'll be late? - No, I should be home at the usual time.

- pour dire que quelque chose est préférable:
It's getting late, I should go home.

- POur donner un conseil: on peut utiliser aussi "ought to"

2.15.11. have to

I have to go Do I have to go? I don't have to go
You have to go Do you have to go? You don't have to go
He / she / it has to go Does he/she/it have to go? He/she/it doesn't have to go
We have to go Do we have to go? We don't have to go
They have to go Do they have to go? They don't have to go

- 'Have 'to' n'est pas un auxiliaire de mode, il s'utilise en remplacement de must, quand la forme nécessaire n'existe pas.
Par exemple au passé:
I had to break the window as I had lost my key.
Ou au futur:
Candidates will have to fill in the form first.

- Parfois, on peut utiliser indifféremment 'have to' ou 'must' pour dire qu'il est nécessaire de faire quelque chose. Mais parfois il y a une différence: on utilise 'must' pour parler des choses que nous estimons nécessaires, alors que 'have to' est utilisé pour parler de choses qu'il est nécessaire de faire à cause de règles que d'autres personnes nous obligent à suivre.
Comparez: My brother has to travel a lot in his job.
I must write to Anne: I haven't written to her in ages.


Télécharger une synthèse de tous les auxiliaires de mode: modals

Possibilité can, could, may et might (de moins en moins probable)
Déduction logique must, should, may, might (de moins en moins certain)
Permission can, could, may (de plus en plus poli)
Requête can, will, could, would (de plus en plus poli)
Obligation must, have to
Conseil should
(In)apacité can('t)
Interdiction mustn't, can't, may not

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faire l'exercice 2: must / have to / should / ought to

faire l'exercice 3: modals

2.16. Phrasal verbs

1) De nombreux verbes s'utilisent avec une particule: come back, turn round, look out, get up, carry on, etc. La particule change la signification de ce verbe.

2) Il y a généralement deux positions possibles pour l'objet: avant ou après la particule. I turned off the light = I turned the light off. Mais lorsque l'objet est un pronom, il se placera alors devant la particule. I turned it off.

3) Quelques exemples de verbes à particules courants:

Verbe Phrase d'enxemple
to put on Put on a jacket: you're going to catch a cold ig you go out like that.
to break down Sorry I'm late. The car broke down on the way here.
to bring back Has Philip brought back the books he borrowed?
to carry on I don't want to interrupt you, please carry on reading.
to get up I usually get up at 6.30 on a weekday.
to look out Hey! Look out! There's a car coming!
to take off My plane took off on time.
to switch off Could you switch off your mobile during the film?
to break in Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo.
to find out We tried to keep her birthday party a secret, but Samantha found out.
to break up Dan and Clare had a terrible row and decided to break up.
to run over I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.
to give up My father gave up smoking three months ago.
to wake up We have to wake up early for work on Monday.
to hurry up We have to hurry up or we're going to be late!

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2.17. Verbes prépositionnels

Les verbes prépositionnels ressemblent fort aux "phrasal verbs", mais la préposition précédera toujours l'objet, même si celui-ci est un pronom.
The police are looking for the criminal.
The police are looking for him.

Quelques exemples de verbes prépositionnels:

Verbe Phrase d'enxemple
to agree with I don't always agree with everything he says.
to depend on My answer will depend on the situation.
to look for I'm looking for Jeoffrey. Have you seen him today?
to listen to I like to listen to music when I'm working.
to look after Could you look after our children while we go to the restaurant?
to pay for Dad paid for the meal and left a tip
to think about It’s a great offer. Think about it and let me know your decision.
to wait for Wait for us! We're coming too!
to look at I was looking at some old pictures when John came into the room.
to believe in He's 10 years old, but he still believes in Santa Claus...

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2.18. Constructions verbales

2.18.1. l'infinitif avec "to"

L'infinitif est le plus souvent précédé de "to", par exemple
a) après certains verbes: afford, hope, want, advise, ask, encourage, forbid, tell, choose, wish, promise, fail, learn, expect, agree, invite, refuse, forget, persuade, remind, offer, etc.
I hope to see you soon.
He wanted us to leave immediately.
Would you like to dance?

b) pour exprimer le but:
Why did you come here? - To see you.
c) après un substantif:
I have no wish to change.
d) après un mot interrogatif (sauf 'why'):
I don't know what to say.
e) Le sujet de l'infinitif se met à la forme objet, devant le "to":
I want him to tell me the truth.
I asked her to help me.
He would like me to come.

2.18.2. Infinitifs sans "to"

a) après les auxiliaires de mode, et "do"
I can speak German.
Does he smoke?
b) après "let's"
Let's all go and see Ann.
c) après les verbes make, help et let
Could you help me carry these boxes?
They made him lie on the ground

2.18.3. Forme en -ing

a) après les verbes enjoy, give up, avoid, like, mind, love, hate, suggest, imagine, fancy, can't stand, keep, admit, involve, consider, miss, begin, etc.
I hate being late.
Do you mind closing the window?
Chris suggested going to the cinema

b) dans les temps continus
I'm writing a letter.
c) après une préposition:
She's good at swimming.
I was interested in being a dentist.

d) Comme sujet:
Listening to music helps me relax.

2.18.4. forme en -ing ou infinitif?

a) Certains verbes peuvent être suivis de l'infinitif ou de la forme en -ing sans différence de sens:
He started to pack / packing.
The baby began crying / to cry.
I like reading / I like to read a book before sleeping.

b) Certains verbes peuvent être suivis soit de l'infinitif, soit de la forme en -ing, mais le sens sera différent:

I remember being very happy as a child. (action dans le passé)
Remember to put some petrol in the car.
(action dans le futur)

He stopped smoking. (arrêter de faire qqch)
He stopped painting to have a cigarette.
(arrêter de faire qqch pour...)

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2.19. La voix passive

2.19.1. Forme

Temps Voix active Voix passive
Present simple Asus produces these computers. These computers are produced by Asus.
Past simple Asus produced these computers. These computers were produced by Asus.
Present continuous Asus is producing these computers. These computers are being produced by Asus.
Past continuous Asus was producing these computers. These computers were produced by Asus.
Present perfect Asus has produced these computers. These computers have been produced by Asus.
Past perfect Asus had produced these computers. These computers had been produced by Asus.
Futur simple Asus will produce these computers. These computers will be produced by Asus.
Futur perfect Asus will have produced these computers. These computers will have been produced by Asus.
Conditional Asus would produce these computers. These computers would be produced by Asus.

2.19.2. Utilisation

a) On utilise la voix passive lorsque l'on veut changer le point de vue de la phrase, lorsqu'on est intéressé par qui a subit l'action plutôt que par qui a fait l'action, ou quand on ne sait pas (ou ne veut pas dire) qui a fait l'action.

b) Certains verbes peuvent avoir deux objets à la voix active, il peut donc y avoir deux sujets à la voix passive:
They didn't offer Ann the job
Ann wasn't offered the job.
The job wasn't offered to Ann.

2.19.3. It is said that... / he is said to...

Lorsqu'on ne sait pas qui a effectué l'action, ou qu'on veut prendre ses précautions (journalisme), on utilise le passif. Il y a pour cela deux structures, selon que l'on utilise le sujet personnel ou impersonnel:
Henry is very old, but nobody knows exactly how old he is. People say that he is 104 years old.
It is said that he is 104 years old.
He is said to be 104 years old.

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